Diabetes Treatments: Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs & Insulin Replacement Therapy

The main goal of type 2 diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels within the normal range. However, the normal blood sugar levels is really difficult to maintain. But, if blood sugar levels can be closer to the normal range, then the likelihood of complications, temporarily or long-term, becomes less and less. This requires the monitoring of blood sugar levels regularly whether conducted individually with a blood sugar test at home or done in the nearest laboratory.

Treatment of diabetes include weight control, exercise and diet. Someone who suffer from obesity and type 2 diabetes will not need treatment if they lose weight and exercise regularly. However, most people find it difficult to lose weight and doing regular exercise. For that, it is usually given insulin replacement therapy or hypoglycemic drugs (lowering blood sugar).

Type 1 diabetes can only be treated with insulin, but type 2 can be treated with oral medication. If weight control and exercise are not successful then the doctor could give the drugs that can be taken orally or use insulin.

Here are the division of pharmacological therapy for diabetes:

1. Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs

Sulfonylureas groups often can reduce blood sugar levels adequately in people with type II diabetes, but not effective in diabetes type I. Examples are Glipizide, Glyburide, Tolbutamide and Chlorpropamide. These drugs lower blood sugar by stimulating the release of insulin by the pancreas and increase its effectiveness.

Other drugs, namely Metformin, does not affect insulin releases but increases the body's response to insulin itself. Acarbose works by delaying the absorption of glucose in the intestine.

Hypoglycemic medication by mouth usually given to type II diabetes if diet and exercises fail to lower the blood sugar levels. These drugs can sometimes be given only once (early morning), although some patients require 2-3 times a day. If hypoglycemic medication can not control blood sugar levels properly, diabetic patient may need to be given insulin injections.

2.Insulin Replacement Therapy

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can not produce insulin, so insulin must be given as a replacement. Giving insulin can only be done through injection, insulin was destroyed in the stomach that can not be given by mouth (swallowed). Meanwhile, the new forms of insulin (nasal spray) is under study. At this time, new forms of insulin is not able to work well because of different absorption rates poses problems in determining the dose.

Insulin is injected under the skin into the fat layer, usually in the arm, thigh or abdominal wall. It is usually used a very small needle so as not to feel too much pain.

Injection of insulin often leads to the formation of fatty deposits (so skin looks bumped) or damage to fat (which grooved the skin). These complications can be prevented by replacing the injection site and change the type of insulin injected. On the use of synthetic human insulin, it is rarely happen resistance and allergy.
[Please read also: History of Insulin Discovery]

Diet management for a diabetic is very important. Usually patients can not eat too many sweet foods and should eat in a regular schedule. People with diabetes tend to have high cholesterol, and because of that, it is recommended to limit the amount of saturated fats in food. But the best way to lower cholesterol is to control blood sugar levels and body weight.
[Please read also: Diabetics Diet]

All patients should understand how diet and exercise can control the disease. They must understand the importance of how to avoid the occurrence of complications. Patients also must give special attention to foot infections, so the nails should be cut regularly. It is also important to check our eyes health condition, so we could note the changes of blood vessels in the eye.

The Most Common Complications Of Diabetes

Diabetes complications
Diabetes is a disease that had complications (other disease causing) the most. This is related to blood sugar levels that are constantly high, so resulting the damage to blood vessels, nerves and other internal structures of human body. Complex substance consisting of sugar in the blood vessel wall causes blood vessels to thicken and leak. Due to the thickening then the blood flow will be reduced, especially those headed to the skin and nerves.

Blood sugar levels that not controlled are also likely to cause levels of fatty substances in the blood increases, so as to accelerate the occurrence of atherosclerosis (the accumulation of fatty plaques in blood vessels). Atherosclerosis is 2-6 times more common in diabetics.

Poor blood circulation is through a large blood vessels (macro) can injure the brain, heart, and leg veins (macroangiopathy), whereas the small blood vessels (micro) can hurt the eyes, kidneys, nerves and skin and then to slower the healing of wounds.

Diabetics can experience various long-term complications, especially if their diabetes not managed properly. The most common complications are cardiovascular disease, eye problems, diabetic neuropathy, itchy feet, osteoporosis and deadly heart attacks and strokes.

Damage to the eye's blood vessels can cause visual impairment due to damage to the retina (diabetic retinopathy). Abnormalities of kidney function can cause kidney failure, so people may have to receive hemodialysis treatment.

Disturbances in the nerves can manifest in several forms. If the nerve has an abnormal function (mononeuropathy), then a normal arm or leg suddenly became weak. If the nerves to the hand, leg and foot were damaged (diabetic polineuropathy), the arm and leg will feel a tingling sensation or burning pain and weakness.

Nerve damage causes more frequent skin injuries because people can not feel any pressure and temperature changes. Decreased blood flow to the skin can also cause ulcers (sores) and the slow healing of wounds. Ulcer on the foot can be very deep and have an infection and will have a long healing period so that the leg must be amputated.

Many medical treatments are available to help when diabetes complications occur. In addition, the measures described above can still be helped by slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. So this is not time to give up. Instead, it is important to work with your doctors to help you keep working toward tight blood glucose control and following a program of healthy, low-fat eating, regular exercise and quitting smoking.

Following are the most common complications of Diabetes:

»» Cardiovascular disease: People with diabetes are two to four more times likely to develop heart disease and five times more likely to have a stroke than people without diabetes.

»» Kidney damage: People with diabetes are 20 times more likely to develop kidney failure than people without diabetes.

»» Nerve damage (neuropathy): At least half of all people who have diabetes for 25 years or more have neuropathy, which can result in such diverse symptoms as pain in hands, feet, thighs or face, digestive problems, bladder or bowel control problems, loss of sensation, muscle weakness, and impotence or other Sexual Performance Problems.

»» Eye disease (diabetic retinopathy): People with diabetes are four times more likely to become blind than people without diabetes.

»» Infections: Excessive blood glucose can hamper the immune system, creating a greater risk for infections in the mouth and gums, lungs, skins, feet, genital areas, in the incision areas after major surgery. Neuropathy can also lead to increased infections: decreased sensitivity may cause small cuts, abrasions or burns to go unnoticed and therefore untreated until a major infection develops; neuropathy that affects the bladder may lead to bladder infections.

Vegetarian Diet For Type 2 Diabetes The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) at George Washington University and the University of Toronto have found that Type 2 diabetes can be treated more effectively with a vegan diet that are low in fat than the standard diabetic diet.
Red Wine May Help Prevent Diabetes The new study conducted by a team of scientist from the University of Texas, United States, shows, Resveratrol, a compound found in red wine that also could act as an antioxidant, may help to prevent type 2 diabetes and counter insulin resistance.
» Classic Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Three classic symptoms are polyuria (excessive passage of urine), polydipsia (abnormal thirst) and polyphagia (pathological desire to eat).
» History of Insulin Discovery Sir Frederick Grant Banting, discoverer of insulin (the controller of the metabolism of sugar), was born November 14, 1891, in Alliston, Ontario, Canada.
» How to Diagnose Diabetes Mellitus A simple urine test can diagnose diabetes if there is glucose present in the urine. However, the best way to diagnose it is by a 2-hour glucose tolerance test.